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“The palm of good letter-writing has been universally awarded to the fair sex.” — Etiquette of Good Society, 1893.

For Victorian ladies, there was much more to letter writing than simply dashing off a note. There were rules for proper correspondence, encompassing everything from acceptable shades of paper and ink to penmanship, wax seals, and conditions under which a woman must write in the third person. I can’t tackle all of these rules in a single article. Instead, I’ve gathered twelve quotes from various Victorian etiquette books addressing the basics of ladylike letter writing. I present them to you below.

yesnocopeYes or No? by Charles West Cope, 1872. (Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool)

1) Use Good Quality Writing Paper.

“There is a fashion in letter-paper and envelopes which is ever varying as to size and shape—sometimes small, at other times large; now oblong, now square; but one thing never alters, and that is the desirability of using good thick paper and envelopes, whatever the shape may be. Nothing looks more mean and untidy than thin sheets and envelopes of the same quality, through which the writing exhibits itself.”

— Etiquette of Good Society, 1893

2) Use the Proper Color of Writing Paper.

“Perfectly plain paper, thick, smooth, and white, is the most elegant. When in mourning, use paper and envelopes with a black edge. Never use the gilt-edged or fancy bordered paper; it looks vulgar, and is in bad taste.”

— The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette and Manual of Politeness, 1872

3) Use a Good Quality Pen.

“Use good pens. Bad pens make bad writers, waste time, spoil paper, and irritate the temper. Therefore it is not economy to use bad pens because they are low in price. A bad pen will be a very dear one if, by spoiling your writing and irritating your temper, it should cause you to write a scrawl in careless language upon business of importance.”

— Etiquette, Politeness, and Good Breeding, 1870

letterstevensThe Letter by Alfred Émile Léopold Stevens (1823-1906)

4) Use the Proper Color of Ink.

“The color of ink most durable and tasteful, on all occasions and for all correspondence, is black. Red ink should never be used for the body of a letter. Blue ink may be. Fancy ink may answer for ladies, but is not in taste for gentlemen.”

— Hand-Book of Official and Social Etiquette, 1889

5) Pay Attention to Your Handwriting.

“The handwriting should be clear, and yet not too large and bold; it should possess some character and style, but not be adorned or ornamented with fine flourishes and dashes.”

— Etiquette of Good Society, 1893

6) Begin with the Correct Salutation.

“The salutation is the term of politeness used to introduce a letter, as Dear Sir, My Dear Friend, My Honored Father. Business letters generally begin with Sir, Dear Sir, Messrs. or Gentlemen. Never use ‘gents.’ for Gentlemen, nor ‘Dr.’ for Dear. For a letter addressed to a married woman or a single woman not young, the proper salutation is Madam, Dear Madam, or My Dear Madam.

— Polite Life and Etiquette, 1891

letterbaugnietThe Letter by Charles Baugniet (1814-1886)

7) When Addressing Friends, Write in a Conversational Style.

“Letter writing is, in fact, but conversation, carried on with the pen, when distance or circumstances prevent the easier method of exchanging ideas, by spoken words. Write, therefore, as you would speak, were the person to whom your letter is addressed seated beside you.”

— The Ladies’ Book of Etiquette and Manual of Politeness, 1872

8) When Addressing Strangers, Write in the Third Person.

“All letters to strangers and notes of formal character should as a rule be written in the third person, and must always be answered in the same way.”

— Etiquette of Good Society, 1893

9) When Addressing Gentlemen, Watch Your Tone.

“Ladies, when writing to gentlemen who are not related to them, should make their letters mediums of improving conversation, brilliant wit, and moral obligations, and always of so high and pure a tone, that they would be fit for publication should they ever be needed.”

— Gems of Deportment and Hints of Etiquette, 1881

pillarboxjohnstonThe Pillar Box by Alexander Johnston, 1876. (Grundy Art Gallery)

10) Close Your Letter with the Appropriate Sentiment.

“‘Yours sincerely’ is the correct termination; and whatever the degree of friendship, we are inclined to think that great demonstrations of affection and terms of endearment are better avoided, or left only for the use of lovers.”

— Etiquette of Good Society, 1893

11) Proofread for Grammar and Spelling Mistakes.

“Many persons do not naturally spell well, and so are obliged to keep a dictionary always at hand. Such persons should never write a word, about the proper spelling, of which they are uncertain, without looking it up. Bad spelling like bad grammar, is an offence against society.”

— Letter-Writing: Its Ethics and Etiquette, 1890

12) Seal Your Envelope Properly.

“The gummed envelope, without a seal is perfectly correct, but a neat seal of red sealing-wax always gives a refined look to a letter and is a desirable adjunct thereto...If the writer is in mourning black sealing wax should, of course, be used, but no other colors except black and red are good form.”

— Letter-Writing: Its Ethics and Etiquette, 1890

Top image: Letter Writer by Johanne Mathilde Dietrichson (1837-1921).

This post originally appeared on mimimatthews.com and is reprinted here with permission.

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Mimi Matthews is the author of The Pug Who Bit Napoleon: Animal Tales of the 18th and 19th Centuries (to be published by Pen and Sword Books in late 2017). Her articles on nineteenth-century history have been published on various academic and history sites, including the Victorian Web. In her other life, Mimi is an attorney with both a Juris Doctor and a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature. She resides in California with her family – which includes an Andalusian dressage horse, a Sheltie, and two Siamese cats.

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